"NATIONAL CURRENCY"

Did you know that from 1863 to 1929, USA was issuing NATIONAL CURRENCY? I.e. paper money of the republic which were backed by silver and gold, as they REALLY were redeemable in those coins on demand.
There were 14,000 PRIVATE banks that were CHARTERED by USA to issue that money. These banknotes had "NATIONAL CURRENCY" printed on them, and were backed by GOLD and issued by local AMERICAN banks. Those put up bonds with the US Treasury, and then could issue/print 90% of the worth of those bonds.
The red/blue number is the charter number of that bank. This currency was backed by deposits of bonds and gold notes with the Treasury.

That way, the banknotes were backed by assets of those American banks (which of course came from the American people). And if the bank failed to redeem those banknotes on demand in gold or silver, then the US Treasury would redeem them and take over that particular bank due to nonpayment of its obligations.

These were authorized by Act of June 3, 1864

Interestingly, Federal Reserve was ONE of those banks. So it wasn't until 1933 when all these bank charters were abolished, and were replaced with a SINGLE charter to the Federal Reserve.
BUT, that single charter was NOT for issuing NATIONAL (USA) currency, it was for issuing an INTERNAL (US) currency of the federal gov't.
So in 1933, they replaced 14,000 NATIONAL banks with a single FEDERAL Reserve System, which would then issue PRIVATE currency which is backed by NOTHING of real value.
So your 'money' today (FRNs) is NOT a NATIONAL currency, just a private scrip of the United States corporation. Not much different from CHIPS in a CASINO.







In other words, if it DOESN'T say "NATIONAL CURRENCY" on the bank note, it is NOT a national currency!
And that’s how thousands of NATIONAL banks (who dealt in HONEST money backed by gold), were replaced by a single FEDERAL Central bank system (who deals in FIAT money, backed by NOTHING).
Also, in addition to all these private bank-issued bank notes, there were UNITED STATES NOTES (red seal) issued directly by the US Treasury, but those seem to be rather rare from before 1928, so until that time, the PRIVATE-BANK issued NATIONAL CURRENCY, seems to have been the MOST USED paper currency in America.
So until 1933, money was put into circulation by thousands of LOCAL banks owned by private businessmen, rather than by one CENTRAL BANK owned by a handful of rich banksters. I.e. running a bank back then, was a business as any other, and ANYONE with a little capital could start one.
And these LOCAL banks dealt in REAL MONEY (banknotes backed by gold), while the current Central Bank (FedRes) deals in green paper that’s NOT backed by gold or anything of value.
http://coinsite.com/national-currency/
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It’s kinda like being an attorney. Back in the days of the Republic, ANYONE with some knowledge of the law, could be a lawyer (no license required), while today it’s a PRIVILEGED occupation which requires a BAR card.
So America was taken over by special interests, where we must jump through the gov’t hoops, in the country that we the People own.
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Here's what Wikipedia says:
"The National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864 were two United States federal banking acts that established a system of national banks for banks, and created the United States National Banking System. They encouraged development of a national currency backed by bank holdings of U.S. Treasury securities and established the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency as part of the United States Department of the Treasury and authorized the Comptroller to examine and regulate nationally chartered banks. The Act shaped today's national banking system and its support of a uniform U.S. banking policy."
And US Code:
12 U.S. Code § 38 - The National Bank Act
(Current through Pub. L. 114-38. (See Public Laws for the current Congress.))

The Act entitled “An Act to provide a national currency secured by a pledge of United States bonds, and to provide for the circulation and redemption thereof,” approved June 3, 1864, shall be known as “The National Bank Act.”

(June 20, 1874, ch. 343, §?1, 18 Stat. 123.)

The Tower of Basel The Secret Bank that Runs the World

Over the centuries there have been many stories, some based on loose facts, others based on hearsay, conjecture, speculation and outright lies, about groups of people who "control the world." Some of these are partially accurate, others are wildly hyperbolic, but when it comes to the historic record, nothing comes closer to the stereotypical, secretive group determining the fate of over 7 billion people, than the Bank of International Settlements, which hides in such plain sight, that few have ever paid much attention.





This is their story.




First unofficial meeting of the BIS Board of Directors in Basel, April 1930

* * *

The following is an excerpt from TOWER OF BASEL: The Shadowy History of the Secret Bank that Runs the World by Adam LeBor.  Reprinted with permission from PublicAffairs.

The world’s most exclusive club has eighteen members. They gather every other month on a Sunday evening at 7 p.m. in conference room E in a circular tower block whose tinted windows overlook the central Basel railway station. Their discussion lasts for one hour, perhaps an hour and a half. Some of those present bring a colleague with them, but the aides rarely speak during this most confidential of conclaves. The meeting closes, the aides leave, and those remaining retire for dinner in the dining room on the eighteenth floor, rightly confident that the food and the wine will be superb. The meal, which continues until 11 p.m. or midnight, is where the real work is done. The protocol and hospitality, honed for more than eight decades, are faultless. Anything said at the dining table, it is understood, is not to be repeated elsewhere.

Few, if any, of those enjoying their haute cuisine and grand cru wines— some of the best Switzerland can offer—would be recognized by passers-by, but they include a good number of the most powerful people in the world. These men—they are almost all men—are central bankers. They have come to Basel to attend the Economic Consultative Committee (ECC) of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), which is the bank for central banks. Its current members [ZH: as of 2013] include Ben Bernanke, the chairman of the US Federal Reserve; Sir Mervyn King, the governor of the Bank of England; Mario Draghi, of the European Central Bank; Zhou Xiaochuan of the Bank of China; and the central bank governors of Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Canada, India, and Brazil. Jaime Caruana, a former governor of the Bank of Spain, the BIS’s general manager, joins them.

In early 2013, when this book went to press, King, who is due to step down as governor of the Bank of England in June 2013, chaired the ECC. The ECC, which used to be known as the G-10 governors’ meeting, is the most influential of the BIS’s numerous gatherings, open only to a small, select group of central bankers from advanced economies. The ECC makes recommendations on the membership and organization of the three BIS committees that deal with the global financial system, payments systems, and international markets. The committee also prepares proposals for the Global Economy Meeting and guides its agenda.

That meeting starts at 9:30 a.m. on Monday morning, in room B and lasts for three hours. There King presides over the central bank governors of the thirty countries judged the most important to the global economy. In addition to those who were present at the Sunday evening dinner, Monday’s meeting will include representatives from, for example, Indonesia, Poland, South Africa, Spain, and Turkey. Governors from fifteen smaller countries, such as Hungary, Israel, and New Zealand are allowed to sit in as observers, but do not usually speak. Governors from the third tier of member banks, such as Macedonia and Slovakia, are not allowed to attend. Instead they must forage for scraps of information at coffee and meal breaks.

The governors of all sixty BIS member banks then enjoy a buffet lunch in the eighteenth-floor dining room. Designed by Herzog & de Meuron, the Swiss architectural firm which built the “Bird’s Nest” Stadium for the Beijing Olympics, the dining room has white walls, a black ceiling and spectacular views over three countries: Switzerland, France, and Germany. At 2 p.m. the central bankers and their aides return to room B for the governors’ meeting to discuss matters of interest, until the gathering ends at 5.

King takes a very different approach than his predecessor, Jean-Claude Trichet, the former president of the European Central Bank, in chairing the Global Economy Meeting. Trichet, according to one former central banker, was notably Gallic in his style: a stickler for protocol who called the central bankers to speak in order of importance, starting with the governors of the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, and the Bundesbank, and then progressing down the hierarchy. King, in contrast, adopts a more thematic and egalitarian approach: throwing open the meetings for discussion and inviting contributions from all present.

The governors’ conclaves have played a crucial role in determining the world’s response to the global financial crisis. “The BIS has been a very important meeting point for central bankers during the crisis, and the rationale for its existence has expanded,” said King. “We have had to face challenges that we have never seen before. We had to work out what was going on, what instruments do we use when interest rates are close to zero, how do we communicate policy. We discuss this at home with our staff, but it is very valuable for the governors themselves to get together and talk among themselves.”

Those discussions, say central bankers, must be confidential. “When you are at the top in the number one post, it can be pretty lonely at times. It is helpful to be able to meet other number ones and say, ‘This is my problem, how do you deal with it?’” King continued. “Being able to talk informally and openly about our experiences has been immensely valuable. We are not speaking in a public forum. We can say what we really think and believe, and we can ask questions and benefit from others.”

The BIS management works hard to ensure that the atmosphere is friendly and clubbable throughout the weekend, and it seems they succeed. The bank arranges a fleet of limousines to pick up the governors at Z├╝rich airport and bring them to Basel. Separate breakfasts, lunches, and dinners are organized for the governors of national banks who oversee different types and sizes of national economies, so no one feels excluded. “The central bankers were more at home and relaxed with their fellow central bankers than with their own governments,” recalled Paul Volcker, the former chairman of the US Federal Reserve, who at- tended the Basel weekends. The superb quality of the food and wine made for an easy camaraderie, said Peter Akos Bod, a former governor of the National Bank of Hungary. “The main topics of discussion were the quality of the wine and the stupidity of finance ministers. If you had no knowledge of wine you could not join in the conversation.”

And the conversation is usually stimulating and enjoyable, say central bankers. The contrast between the Federal Open Markets Committee at  the US Federal Reserve, and the Sunday evening G-10 governors’ dinners was notable, recalled Laurence Meyer, who served as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve from 1996 until 2002. The chairman of the Federal Reserve did not always represent the bank at the Basel meetings, so Meyer occasionally attended. The BIS discussions were always lively, focused and thought provoking. “At FMOC meetings, while I was at the Fed, almost all the Committee members read statements which had been prepared in advance. They very rarely referred to statements by other Committee members and there was almost never an exchange between two members or an ongoing discussion about the outlook or policy options. At BIS dinners people actually talk to each other and the discussions are always stimulating and interactive focused on the serious issues facing the global economy.”

All the governors present at the two-day gathering are assured of total confidentiality, discretion, and the highest levels of security. The meetings take place on several floors that are usually used only when the governors are in attendance. The governors are provided with a dedicated office and the necessary support and secretarial staff. The Swiss authorities have no juridisdiction over the BIS premises. Founded by an international treaty, and further protected by the 1987 Headquarters Agreement with the Swiss government, the BIS enjoys similar protections to those granted to the headquarters of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and diplomatic embassies. The Swiss authorities need the permission of the BIS management to enter the bank’s buildings, which are described as “inviolable.”

The BIS has the right to communicate in code and to send and receive correspondence in bags covered by the same protection as embassies, meaning they cannot be opened. The BIS is exempt from Swiss taxes. Its employees do not have to pay income tax on their salaries, which are usually generous, designed to compete with the private sector. The general man- ager’s salary in 2011 was 763,930 Swiss francs, while head of departments were paid 587,640 per annum, plus generous allowances. The bank’s extraordinary legal privileges also extend to its staff and directors. Senior managers enjoy a special status, similar to that of diplomats, while carrying out their duties in Switzerland, which means their bags cannot be searched (unless there is evidence of a blatant criminal act), and their papers are inviolable. The central bank governors traveling to Basel for the bimonthly meetings enjoy the same status while in Switzerland. All bank officials are immune under Swiss law, for life, for all the acts carried out during the discharge of their duties. The bank is a popular place to work and not just because of the salaries. Around six hundred staff come from over fifty countries. The atmosphere is multi-national and cosmopolitan, albeit very Swiss, emphasizing the bank’s hierarchy. Like many of those working for the UN or the IMF, some of the staff of the BIS, especially senior management, are driven by a sense of mission, that they are working for a higher, even celestial purpose and so are immune from normal considerations of accountability and transparency.

The bank’s management has tried to plan for every eventuality so that the Swiss police need never be called. The BIS headquarters has high-tech sprinkler systems with multiple back-ups, in-house medical facilities, and its own bomb shelter in the event of a terrorist attack or armed conflagration. The BIS’s assets are not subject to civil claims under Swiss law and can never be seized.

The BIS strictly guards the bankers’ secrecy. The minutes, agenda, and actual attendance list of the Global Economy Meeting or the ECC are not released in any form. This is because no official minutes are taken, although the bankers sometimes scribble their own notes. Sometimes there will be a brief press conference or bland statement afterwards but never anything detailed. This tradition of privileged confidentiality reaches back to the bank’s foundation.

“The quietness of Basel and its absolutely nonpolitical character provide a perfect setting for those equally quiet and nonpolitical gatherings,” wrote one American official in 1935. “The regularity of the meetings and their al- most unbroken attendance by practically every member of the Board make them such they rarely attract any but the most meager notice in the press.”8 Forty years on, little had changed. Charles Coombs, a former foreign exchange chief of the New York Federal Reserve, attended governors’ meetings from 1960 to 1975. The bankers who were allowed inside the inner sanctum of the governors’ meetings trusted each other absolutely, he recalled in his memoirs. “However much money was involved, no agreements were ever signed nor memoranda of understanding ever initialized. The word of each official was sufficient, and there were never any disappointments.”

What, then, does this matter to the rest of us? Bankers have been gathering confidentially since money was first invented. Central bankers like to view themselves as the high priests of finance, as technocrats overseeing arcane monetary rituals and a financial liturgy understood only by a small, self-selecting elite.

But the governors who meet in Basel every other month are public servants. Their salaries, airplane tickets, hotel bills, and lucrative pensions when they retire are paid out of the public purse. The national reserves held by central banks are public money, the wealth of nations. The central bankers’ discussions at the BIS, the information that they share, the policies that are evaluated, the opinions that are exchanged, and the subsequent decisions that are taken, are profoundly political. Central bankers, whose independence is constitutionally protected, control monetary policy in the developed world. They manage the supply of money to national economies. They set interest rates, thus deciding the value of our savings and investments. They decide whether to focus on austerity or growth. Their decisions shape our lives.

The BIS’s tradition of secrecy reaches back through the decades. During the 1960s, for example, the bank hosted the London Gold Pool. Eight countries pledged to manipulate the gold market to keep the price at around thirty-five dollars per ounce, in line with the provisions of the Bretton Woods Accord that governed the post–World War II international financial system. Although the London Gold Pool no longer exists, its successor is the BIS Markets Committee, which meets every other month on the occasion of the governors’ meetings to discuss trends in the financial markets. Officials from twenty-one central banks attend. The committee releases occasional papers, but its agenda and discussions remain secret.

Nowadays the countries represented at the Global Economy Meetings together account for around four-fifths of global gross domestic product (GDP)— most of the produced wealth of the world—according to the BIS’s own statistics. Central bankers now “seem more powerful than politicians,” wrote The Economist newspaper, “holding the destiny of the global economy in their hands.” How did this happen? The BIS, the world’s most secretive global financial institution, can claim much of the credit. From its first day of existence, the BIS has dedicated itself to furthering the interests of central banks and building the new architecture of transnational finance. In doing so, it has spawned a new class of close-knit global technocrats whose members glide between highly-paid positions at the BIS, the IMF, and central and commercial banks.

The founder of the technocrats’ cabal was Per Jacobssen, the Swedish economist who served as the BIS’s economic adviser from 1931 to 1956. The bland title belied his power and reach. Enormously influential, well connected, and highly regarded by his peers, Jacobssen wrote the first BIS annual reports, which were—and remain—essential reading throughout the world’s treasuries. Jacobssen was an early supporter of European federalism. He argued relentlessly against inflation, excessive government spending, and state intervention in the economy. Jacobssen left the BIS in 1956 to take over the IMF. His legacy still shapes our world. The consequences of his mix of economic liberalism, price obsession, and dismantling of national sovereignty play out nightly in the European news bulletins on our television screens.

The BIS’s defenders deny that the organization is secretive. The bank’s archives are open and researchers may consult most documents that are more than thirty years old. The BIS archivists are indeed cordial, helpful, and professional. The bank’s website includes all its annual reports, which are downloadable, as well as numerous policy papers produced by the bank’s highly regarded research department. The BIS publishes detailed accounts of the securities and derivatives markets, and international banking statistics. But these are largely compilations and analyses of information already in the public domain. The details of the bank’s own core activities, including much of its banking operations for its customers, central banks, and international organizations, remain secret. The Global Economy Meetings and the other crucial financial gatherings that take place at Basel, such as the Markets Committee, remain closed to outsiders. Private individuals may not hold an account at BIS, unless they work for the bank. The bank’s opacity, lack of accountability, and ever-increasing influence raises profound questions— not just about monetary policy but transparency, accountability, and how power is exercised in our democracies.

* * *

WHEN I EXPLAINED to friends and acquaintances that I was writing a book about the Bank for International Settlements, the usual response was a puzzled look, followed by a question: “The bank for what?” My interlocutors were intelligent people, who follow current affairs. Many had some interest in and understanding of the global economy and financial crisis. Yet only a handful had heard of the BIS. This was strange, as the BIS is the most important bank in the world and predates both the IMF and the World Bank. For decades it has stood at the center of a global network of money, power, and covert global influence.

The BIS was founded in 1930. It was ostensibly set up as part of the Young Plan to administer German reparations payments for the First World War. The bank’s key architects were Montagu Norman, who was the governor of the Bank of England, and Hjalmar Schacht, the president of the Reichsbank who described the BIS as “my” bank. The BIS’s founding members were the central banks of Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, and a consortium of Japanese banks. Shares were also offered to the Federal Reserve, but the United States, suspicious of anything that might infringe on its national sovereignty, refused its allocation. Instead a consortium of commercial banks took up the shares: J. P. Morgan, the First National Bank of New York, and the First National Bank of Chicago.

The real purpose of the BIS was detailed in its statutes: to “promote the cooperation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations.” It was the culmination of the central bankers’ decades-old dream, to have their own bank—powerful, independent, and free from interfering politicians and nosy reporters. Most felicitous of all, the BIS was self-financing and would be in perpetuity. Its clients were its own founders and shareholders— the central banks. During the 1930s, the BIS was the central meeting place for a cabal of central bankers, dominated by Norman and Schacht. This group helped rebuild Germany. The New York Times described Schacht, widely acknowledged as the genius behind the resurgent German economy, as “The Iron-Willed Pilot of Nazi Finance.” During the war, the BIS became a de-facto arm of the Reichsbank, accepting looted Nazi gold and carrying out foreign exchange deals for Nazi Germany.

The bank’s alliance with Berlin was known in Washington, DC, and London. But the need for the BIS to keep functioning, to keep the new channels of transnational finance open, was about the only thing all sides agreed on. Basel was the perfect location, as it is perched on the northern edge of Switzerland and sits al- most on the French and German borders. A few miles away, Nazi and Allied soldiers were fighting and dying. None of that mattered at the BIS. Board meetings were suspended, but relations between the BIS staff of the belligerent nations remained cordial, professional, and productive. Nationalities were irrelevant. The overriding loyalty was to international finance. The president, Thomas McKittrick, was an American. Roger Auboin, the general manager, was French. Paul Hechler, the assistant general manager, was a member of the Nazi party and signed his correspondence “Heil Hitler.” Rafaelle Pilotti, the secretary general, was Italian. Per Jacobssen, the bank’s influential economic adviser, was Swedish. His and Pilotti’s deputies were British.

After 1945, five BIS directors, including Hjalmar Schacht, were charged with war crimes. Germany lost the war but won the economic peace, in large part thanks to the BIS. The international stage, contacts, banking networks, and legitimacy the BIS provided, first to the Reichsbank and then to its successor banks, has helped ensure the continuity of immensely powerful financial and economic interests from the Nazi era to the present day.

* * *

FOR THE FIRST forty-seven years of its existence, from 1930 to 1977, the BIS was based in a former hotel, near the Basel central railway station. The bank’s entrance was tucked away by a chocolate shop, and only a small notice confirmed that the narrow doorway opened into the BIS. The bank’s managers believed that those who needed to know where the BIS was would find it, and the rest of the world certainly did not need to know. The inside of the building changed little over the decades, recalled Charles Coombs. The BIS provided the “the spartan accommodations of a former Victorian-style hotel whose single and double bedrooms had been transformed into offices simply by removing the beds and installing desks.”

The bank moved into its current headquarters, at 2, Centralbahnplatz, in 1977. It did not go far and now overlooks the Basel central station. Nowadays the BIS’s main mission, in its own words, is threefold: “to serve central banks in their pursuit of monetary and financial stability, to foster international cooperation in these areas, and to act as a bank for central banks.” The BIS also hosts much of the practical and technical infrastructure that the global network of central banks and their commercial counterparts need to function smoothly. It has two linked trading rooms: at the Basel headquarters and Hong Kong regional office. The BIS buys and sells gold and foreign exchange for its clients. It provides asset management and arranges short-term credit to central banks when needed.

The BIS is a unique institution: an international organization, an extremely profitable bank and a research institute founded, and protected, by international treaties. The BIS is accountable to its customers and shareholders—the central banks—but also guides their operations. The main tasks of a central bank, the BIS argues, are to control the flow of credit and the volume of currency in circulation, which will ensure a stable business climate, and to keep exchange rates within manageable bands to ensure the value of a currency and so smooth international trade and capital movements. This is crucial, especially in a globalized economy, where markets react in microseconds and perceptions of economic stability and value are almost as important as reality itself.

The BIS also helps to supervise commercial banks, although it has no legal powers over them. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, based at the BIS, regulates commercial banks’ capital and liquidity requirements. It requires banks to have a minimum capital of eight percent of risk-weighted assets when lending, meaning that if a bank has risk-weighted assets of $100 million it must maintain at least $8 million capital. The committee has no powers of enforcement, but it does have enormous moral authority. “This regulation is so powerful that the eight percent principle has been set into national laws,” said Peter Akos Bod. “It’s like voltage. Voltage has been set at 220. You may decide on ninety-five volts, but it would not work.” In theory, sensible housekeeping and mutual cooperation, overseen by the BIS, will keep the global financial system functioning smoothly. In theory.

The reality is that we have moved beyond recession into a deep structural crisis, one fueled by the banks’ greed and rapacity, which threatens all of our financial security. Just as in the 1930s, parts of Europe face economic collapse. The Bundesbank and the European Central Bank, two of the most powerful members of the BIS, have driven the mania for austerity that has already forced one European country, Greece, to the edge, aided by the venality and corruption of the country’s ruling class. Others may soon follow. The old order is creaking, its political and financial institutions corroding from within. From Oslo to Athens, the far right is resurgent, fed in part by soaring poverty and unemployment. Anger and cynicism are corroding citizens’ faith in democracy and the rule of law. Once again, the value of property and assets is vaporizing before their owners’ eyes. The European currency is threatened with breakdown, while those with money seek safe haven in Swiss francs or gold. The young, the talented, and the mobile are again fleeing their home countries for new lives abroad. The powerful forces of international capital that brought the BIS into being, and which granted the bank its power and influence, are again triumphant.

The BIS sits at the apex of an international financial system that is falling apart at the seams, but its officials argue that it does not have the power to act as an international financial regulator. Yet the BIS cannot escape its responsibility for the Euro-zone crisis. From the first agreements in the late 1940s on multilateral payments to the establishment of the Europe Central Bank in 1998, the BIS has been at the heart of the European integration project, providing technical expertise and the financial mechanisms for currency harmonization. During the 1950s, it managed the European Payments Union, which internationalized the continent’s payment system. The BIS hosted the Governors’ Committee of European Economic Community central bankers, set up in 1964, which coordinated trans-European monetary policy. During the 1970s, the BIS ran the “Snake,” the mechanism by which European currencies were held in exchange rate bands. During the 1980s the BIS hosted the Delors Committee, whose report in 1988 laid out the path to European Monetary Union and the adoption of a single currency. The BIS midwifed the European Monetary Institute (EMI), the precursor of the European Central Bank. The EMI’s president was Alexandre Lamfalussy, one of the world’s most influential economists, known as the “Father of the euro.” Before joining the EMI in 1994, Lamfalussy had worked at the BIS for seventeen years, first as economic adviser, then as the bank’s general manager.

For a staid, secretive organization, the BIS has proved surprisingly nimble. It survived the first global depression, the end of reparations payments and the gold standard (two of its main reasons for existence), the rise of Nazism, the Second World War, the Bretton Woods Accord, the Cold War, the financial crises of the 1980s and 1990s, the birth of the IMF and World Bank, and the end of Communism. As Malcolm Knight, manager from 2003–2008, noted, “It is encouraging to see that—by remaining small, flexible, and free from political interference—the Bank has, throughout its history, succeeded remarkably well in adapting itself to evolving circumstances.”

The bank has made itself a central pillar of the global financial system. As well as the Global Economy Meetings, the BIS hosts four of the most important international committees dealing with global banking: the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, the Committee on the Global Financial System, the Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems, and the Irving Fisher Committee, which deals with central banking statistics. The bank also hosts three independent organizations: two groups dealing with insurance and the Financial Stability Board (FSB). The FSB, which coordinates national financial authorities and regulatory policies, is already being spoken of as the fourth pillar of the global financial system, after the BIS, the IMF and the commercial banks.

The BIS is now the world’s thirtieth-largest holder of gold reserves, with 119 metric tons—more than Qatar, Brazil, or Canada. Membership of the BIS remains a privilege rather than a right. The board of directors is responsible for admitting central banks judged to “make a substantial contribution to international monetary cooperation and to the Bank’s activities.” China, India, Russia, and Saudi Arabia joined only in 1996. The bank has opened offices in Mexico City and Hong Kong but remains very Eurocentric. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Slovakia (total population 16.2 million) have been admitted, while Pakistan (population 169 million) has not. Nor has Kazakhstan, which is a powerhouse of Central Asia. In Africa only Algeria and South Africa are members—Nigeria, which has the continent’s second-largest economy, has not been admitted. (The BIS’s defenders say that it demands high governance standards from new members and when the national banks of countries such as Nigeria and Pakistan reach those standards, they will be considered for membership.)

Considering the BIS’s pivotal role in the transnational economy, its low profile is remarkable. Back in 1930 a New York Times reporter noted that the culture of secrecy at the BIS was so strong that he was not permitted to look inside the boardroom, even after the directors had left. Little has changed. Journalists are not allowed inside the headquarters while the Global Economy Meeting is underway. BIS officials speak rarely on the record, and reluctantly, to members of the press. The strategy seems to work. The Occupy Wall Street movement, the anti-globalizers, the social network protesters have ignored the BIS. Centralbahnplatz 2, Basel, is quiet and tranquil. There are no demonstrators gathered outside the BIS’s headquarters, no protestors camped out in the nearby park, no lively reception committees for the world’s central bankers.

As the world’s economy lurches from crisis to crisis, financial institutions are scrutinized as never before. Legions of reporters, bloggers, and investigative journalists scour the banks’ every move. Yet somehow, apart from brief mentions on the financial pages, the BIS has largely managed to avoid critical scrutiny. Until now.


What is this 1099-OID?

During your lifetime you have probably NOT had the Secretary of the Treasury / IRS ‘paying’ / discharging your debts for you or adjusting the [your] account according to HJR192.

You, like most people, have been giving your equity away (paying your bills) in the form of Federal Reserve Notes that you acquired through your labor.

You had the pre-paid account available but didn’t know it existed, or didn’t know how to use it, and the net result is you have been paying for ‘stuff’ the company should have been “paying” for all along.

Its time to fill out an “expense report” (a Form 1099-OID) and sending it to the payroll clerk to be reimbursed for the ‘stuff’ you paid for that the company was supposed to pay for.

The Form 1099-OID is known as an “original issue discount” form.

Remember that all men/women issue (originate) from the ground? They are God’s creation and therefore all labor that originates from them is also considered ‘original issue’.

Since we eventually return to the ground - all labor also needs to be returned to the source of the labor, and that would be to the man/woman who created products and services from his/her labor.

The 1099-OID is basically an expense report that needs to be submitted to ‘the company’ via the ‘payroll clerk’ to be reimbursed for purchases you made that the company should have paid for in the first place. Just like an expense report you need to attach the receipts (only in the event of and IRS audit) to the 1099 for proper accounting by the ‘payroll clerk’.

So let's review:
  • When you were born your parents entered a contract with the government / ‘the company’ that was bankrupt and you essentially went to work part time for them, to help pay off the debt the ‘company’ had incurred.
  • The instrument that was used was the “Application for Live Birth Certificate” and it became a binding contract. It also became a pledge to / for the ‘company’ and security they use to ‘pay’ the debt the ‘company’ has with the bankers.
  • One can redeem and regain control of the [birth certificate] instrument by filing a UCC-1 Financing Statement with the Secretary of State in one’s state and listing the birth certificate as [your] ‘property’, or collateral.
  • By filling out the Form SS-5 “Application for Social Security Benefits” we entered into another contract that allowed the ‘company’ to access the [our] prepaid account that was created with the passage of House Joint Resolution (HJR) 192. (learn about this resolution) the SS-5 can be revoked and the contract rescinded by simply filling out an Form SS521 “Withdrawal of Social Security Benefits”.
  • By creating a bond and sending it with a copy of one’s duly filed UCC-1 to the Secretary of the Treasury one can then access the prepaid account that was created and begin to discharge any debt incurred from that point forward.
  • Please be aware that this is an ongoing learning process. If there is something you don’t understand DO NOT DO THESE PROCEDURES. Get some help from someone who has done this. As one may suspect, this website doesn’t cover everything needed.

The IRS is my Friend?! - YES!

If they are not now, they soon will be…

Let’s review who the IRS really is… the IRS is the accounting and collection division of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the bankers, who the company owes money to.

They are the ones who enforce and oversee the bankruptcy of the ‘company’. They are really not your enemy… they are only doing what they were hired to do, and that is to keep track of the bankruptcy of the company. It is imperative we learn how to use them to our advantage as they can be a tremendous resource for us.

The Secretary of the Treasury is like the payroll clerk at ‘most any company you may work for. He acts in a dual capacity as both “payroll clerk” and receiver in the bankruptcy for the bankers.
With additional documents and letters not covered in this presentation one can call upon the Secretary, or the IRS, to adjust the accounts and “pay” the bills, taxes, and the like, that we have accumulated over time and have the debt incurred “paid offusing the pre-paid account that is waiting for us to use.

Now the question you may have is - "So all I have to do is accept the bill for the value I gave it when my labor was pledged and send it back to the party who sent the bill and they forward it to the Secretary of the Treasury and he will use my prepaid account to settle and close the account/debt?"

You got it. That’s basically how it works. We call upon the Secretary to do what he was hired to do and that is to make adjustments to the [our] account - to set it to zero when we incur, in the normal course of doing business (i.e.; living), things like:
  • Car payments,
  • credit cards,
  • utilities, taxes, etc
  • YES all of them!

Now lets talk about the 1099 OID...


So How Does This All Work - For You!?

So far it has worked real good for the company… they just didn’t tell you how to go about getting your debt set off and how to access and use the pre-paid account.

Well, that’s just great! So what can you do?!

One must acquire a “certified copy” of one’s birth certificate from the keeper of the records in your state, usually the department of vital records, and do what is called an “accepted for value”.


Stamp Specimen

Accept for value” the birth certificate and create a “bond” ( an insurance policy guaranteeing we won’t harm anyone) and send them both with a copy of the UCC-1 financing statement, proving our security interest in the birth certificate, and send it all to the ‘payroll clerk’ of the company, also known as “the Secretary of the Treasury.”


We need to let him know that we want use our pre-paid account. Think about it - it is the same as asking him to pay for the expenses we have incurred on an “expense report” while being employed with the ‘company’.

The company gave us an “expense account” the prepaid account… we might as well use it.

When someone sends you a bill it is what is referred to as a “presentment.” What they are attempting to do is create “new money” with…“money of account

Check book money” - by getting you to accept the liability they are sending you, and get you to “pay” the bill with “money of exchange” (Federal Reserve Notes) or the equity you created, i.e. money that was created as a result of your labor!

In commerce - whoever creates a liability MUST bring in the remedy as well. If the sender doesn’t send the funds to ‘pay’ the bill you must accept the bill for the value you gave it when you were born and use your exemption / prepaid account to off set the debt the sender is creating.

So, it is your choice whether to “set off” the debt with your pre-paid account by accepting the bill for value and sending the bill to the “Paymaster”, i.e.; the Secretary of the Treasury, or IRS for adjustment, OR give them the equity from your labor, i.e., Federal Reserve Notes.

So what do you do? - You accept the bill for value and send it to the “payroll clerk”…

So What is the Catch??

Now, do you see why they don’t want to let a new-born out of the hospital, without a Social Security Account Number?

They want access to that prepaid account, and the only way they can is if they offer some type of benefit that you [albeit unwittingly] accept, also known as, the social security insurance program.

The creation of the social security account created what is known as a “cestui-que trust account.

A cestui que trust is a formal Latin term referring to a beneficiary having an equitable interest in a trust, with the legal title being vested to the trustee. The law looks with suspicion upon transactions between trustees and beneficiaries, and, when the cestui que trust sells trust property to the trustee, the burden is placed upon the grantee or trustee to whom such transfer is made to show that the grantor or cestue que trust was in possession of full information and acted upon her own volition or independent advice, and free from all influence of the grantee or trustee to whom such transfer is made.

"A trust is an equitable obligation binding a person (who is called a trustee) to deal with property over which he has control (which is called the trust property) for the benefit of persons (who are called beneficiaries or cestui que trust) of whom he may himself be one, and anyone of whom may enforce the obligation. Any act or neglect on the part of a trustee which is not authorized or excused by the terms of the trust instrument, or by law, is a breach of trust."
- Justice Romer in Green v Underhill -


So how does it work?...
So with the history aside, are you ready for some good news?!

Your debt, is actually “prepaid” with what is known as “money of account.”

There is no real substance or “money of exchange” like gold and silver- only accounting-adjustments and set offs. They agreed to do this for you, with the passage of House Joint Resolution (HJR) 192 back in 1933. SWEET! Sign me up for that program! Truth is, you already ARE -- its just that no one told you about it, UNTIL NOW!

Like all good companies, they offer to their “employees” insurance benefits. They offer insurance to us if we would fill out a Form SS-5 also known as an “Application for Social Security Benefits”. This all originated from the “Shepard Towners Maternity act” which was to help new mothers with the care of their children if the mother was unwed. (this is why they ask for the maiden name of the mother on the “application for live birth certificate”. We are all considered to be “bastard children” with the ‘company’ as our ‘daddy’.)

The SS-5 is really a power of attorney for the company who issued the insurance benefit to the real man. Power of attorney was given to the corporation, [a/k/a] the government. When they established the new account they styled the name [TITLE] in ALL CAPS [JOHN HENRY DOE] which is really a corporation. It is the name/ title of a corporation. The Social Security Number (SSN) is [prima facie] evidence that there is an insurance policy. The benefits that one receives include the privilege of an army, navy, police, fire protection, courts, jails, prisons, etc.

When we filled out the Form SS-5 we ‘allowed’ the ‘company’ access to our account, our check book as it were, the pre-paid account that was set-up when our birth certificate issued. We gave them permission as signers to write checks on our account, and they do all the time. Keep in mind, this is the same account the bankers fractionalized and created huge, almost unlimited sums of “money”, and we became ‘co-business partners’, with the ‘company’. They are able to access and use our pre-paid account, for whatever they deem necessary.
In order to understand what this is, we need to go way back and discuss how you are seen in the eyes of the government:

When you were born your parents applied for a certification / citizenship / part time* job… with the [THE] “United States” which is a corporation / company.

* “part time” because your full time job is you are working for YOU!!! Your full time job you receive money of exchange, because you are exchanging your labor for other products and services of equal value. There is no real gain , therefore no income, therefore no income tax.

The application they made was known as “an application for a live birth certificate” and what issued from this application was known as a “birth certificate

The ‘company’, the “United States” kept the original application and gave your parents a copy of a birth certificate. This created what is known as a “foreign situs trust account”.

Big, big problems though… when you were born you in essence went to ‘work’ for the ‘company’.

Problem is, the ‘company’ you went to work for could not pay back the loans they had with the bank and the company had to go into bankruptcy in 1933, therefore they had no way to pay you… furthermore, the company came to your parents and asked to borrow your assets, and your parents [unwittingly] obliged, thus making you one of the companies’ creditors.

The ‘company’ then took the application and pledged your future labor as a guarantee for payment to the bankers, also known as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The bankers gave the company a credit for your application against the amount that the company owed the bankers, which at the time of your birth, was worth close to 1 million dollars. This transaction is what is referred to as a “money of account” transaction, as no real money changed hands. It was simply an accounting entry against the debt owed to the bankers, by the company.

The bankers then took the [your] application, and used fractional banking lending. It is the birth certificate that is proof that an application was submitted. It is the application that is the real negotiable instrument and the birth certificate proves there is a negotiable instrument being used in commerce -- to borrow money.

Fractional Banking - For those that don't know, is the bank's ability to loan out nine times what has been deposited. Therefore, if you deposit $100 in your bank, the bank can the loan out $900 to other people, or even yourself, and collect the interest on it.

If a [your] birth certificate is worth, say, 1 million, the bank can loan that same 1 million out as many as 9 times, thus making the [your] birth certificate worth 9 million; and it keeps going, going and going. A [your] birth certificate, has almost unlimited value associated with it.

However, because as it was pledged, you became involved in what is known as “involuntary servitude” or basically a slave to the company, in what is known as an ‘invisible contract’ since you didn’t even know about it…

I'm sure at this point you may be thinking this sounds almost like when you bought a car... You got it … look at a [your] birth certificate and notice that it reads just like a title to a car; weight so many pounds… date of delivery… parties involved…certain size length… hey, now they will even get a foot print to prove it is you.

Think about it… what does the bank do when you borrow money on a car? They keep the “title” for “safe keeping” until the debt is paid.

Once the debt is paid, they release the title back to the original owner. For now, you get the use of the car, until the debt is paid.
  • We must remember the “title” to the car IS NOT the car!
  • They took the “title” to your body, the birth certificate and borrowed money against it. That is exactly what a birth certificate is, A TITLE.
  • Remember, You are NOT the title. You are you,
  • A Flesh and blood man or woman, not so much ink on paper.
Since you are the only one who gives “value” to the birth certificate because of your labor,
you are the only one who can go to the ‘bank’ and redeem and regain control of the [your] birth certificate.

Just like the car. The car gives value to the title to the car. You give value to the title, the [your] birth certificate. Without you, the birth certificate is worthless.

Right now, even though they have no legal right or claim or lien, the bankers control your “title” / birth certificate.

You can regain control by simply filing a notice of lien against the birth certificate.

This is done every day. Banks file notices of liens with the Department of Commerce to prove and establish their interest in all kinds of property… homes, cars, tools, equipment.

This is done very simply by contacting the Secretary of State or Department of Commerce and filing a UCC-1 Financing Statement and listing the property as collateral, on the statement. The same can be done with the birth certificate, which is your property.

You and only you, can file this notice of lien… you and only you, can determine the value of the property.


reverse-engineering a criminal matter

If some party wants to press a claim against someone else, and the claim is one of a criminal nature, they would create an Affidavit for Probable Cause and take it to the appropriate authority, perhaps a county attorney, or a state attorney, or even a US attorney.
If the attorney determined that the claim had merit, he would take it before a Grand Jury.  The Grand Jury would consider the situation, and if they felt that the claim needed to be heard before a petit jury, trier of facts, then the Grand Jury would issue a True Bill.  Hmm, bill … sounds a little like commerce to me.




With the True Bill in hand, the attorney would approach a judge or magistrate to issue a warrant for arrest of the offender.  So, a sheriff or marshal will go out and arrest the offender.
If a sheriff or marshal offers you the ‘benefit privilege’ of being arrested, what is the first thing you ask them for?  You would ask them for the original signature order from the judge and the Affidavit for Probable Cause that instigated the whole thing in the first place.
If in the unlikely event that they did have the original warrant, your remedy would be to AFV  and give it right back to them.  [my son did that once … a traffic cop gave him a true bill and warrant in the form of a traffic ticket … my son did the AFV on the ticket and gave it right back to him … the cop said, ‘you just voided out my ticket’, and my son said, ‘yes, and I will do it to every other ticket you give me’, so the cop went back to his cruiser and wrote out another ticket and just threw the copy of the ticket into the back of my son’s truck … and ran off].
Usually what happens is that they only have some copy of some supposed warrant, and so they arrest you and put on handcuffs (for their safety as you can use whatever physical resistance you are capable of if the warrant is illegally served … which it always is) and haul you off to jail.  “Every person has the right to resist an unlawful arrest ... and, in preventing such illegal restraint of his liberty, he may use such force as may be necessary.”  Columbus v. Holmes, 152 N.E.2d 306 (1958).
So, what is the remedy for that?  Sue the warrant!  One good way to sue the warrant is to do a habeas corpus.  If a warrant is sued, it is presumed to be fraudulent.
I used to hear a man say, find the first defect in the paperwork, and you are 2/3 done.
Now if you haven’t done any of that, what will have to happen is that they will have to identify you.  Technically, they will be trying to identify you as being a citizen.  If you are a citizen, then all of the statutes and codes kick in making you liable for the public or national debt.  If that can be established then you are considered to be an ‘absconding’ debtor (meaning that you are taking off with some of the property belonging to the state, etc.), then they will put you in a holding cell or jail until you can be arraigned before a magistrate to see why you haven’t paid your bills, in particular, the True Bill.
Paramount to establishing a contract between you and the court is for you to give them your name and hopefully they can get a signature or two out of you.
So, the remedy for those requests is … don’t give them your name and don’t sign anything.
Perhaps you might use the tactic Roger used years ago whereas if they ask you for your name, you simply ask them for theirs, and then follow with the rest of the questions … do you have a claim against me, etc.
Brandon, Gordon and Jack have recently come up with some things to say which seem to work real well.  You could say, ‘well I am the authorized representative for JOHN DOE’.  And then there is a further conversation that could be had from there.
Or you might say, ‘I won’t say it for fear you will misspell it.  If you will write it down exactly as I spell it, then here it is…’.  Or you can wear a name tag.
If they insist you sign something, just ask, ‘can I be forced to sign a contract against my will’?  If they say ‘yes’ or still pressure you to sign, you might ask, ‘so then, what you are implying is that you are waiving your bond and insurance and making all of your personal property available for seizure by me.?
Or you could give a qualified signature which could be used to ‘set up’ a situation later on.  If you just give what would be called a general signature without any qualifiers, then you are granting them general jurisdiction on your signature.  But you can qualify your signature in any number of ways.  Some of the most popular are By:  Authorized Representative, or Grantor, Trustee, Beneficiary, Executor, UCC 1-308, UCC 3-402 b, etc.  But what you are doing is allowing your signature to be used only in those limiting situations.
At some point they will be wanting you to plead or pray (but you won’t be praying to God, you will be praying to the false idol known as the ‘state’).
If you are in shackles, you might ask them to take off the restraints because you can’t speak freely unless you are free to do so.  Otherwise any contract you enter into will be done under duress and will not have any effect later on.
If they free you up, tell them that you need an appearance bond at no cost to you so that you can speak in the court.  If they refuse the appearance bond, ask them if anyone present is holding a bond on you?  Who is holding the bond in this case?
***at this point it is important that you always get an answer to every question that they put to you.  You should ask responsive questions which require only a yes or no answer.  Never ask a second question until you have the first one answered.***
Remember that your appearance in the magistrate court is totally civil.  What is being determined is whether or not you have paid your bill.